Category Archives: Falsely accused

Shaken Baby Doubts Keep Surfacing

As the improbable accusations, heart-wrenching convictions, and dogged appeals accumulate, the press is running more stories about disputed diagnoses of shaken baby syndrome.

Prof. Adele Bernhard

Law professor Adele Bernhard

In upstate New York, for example, the Democrat and Chronicle has run a two-part series of what it calls “Watchdog Reports,” with independent text and video treatments.

Part I, “Shaken baby science doubt grows,” features a complex and thoughtful text piece about child-care provider René Bailey, whose 2002 conviction is now being appealed by Professor Adele Bernhard and her students at Pace Law School’s Post Conviction Project. The story includes an intriguing tale told by a new witness, the woman who later cared for a 2-year-old boy who was also at Bailey’s house that day. She says that he seemed to be re-enacting the fatal incident during spontaneous play, again and again with stuffed animals, as a leap from a chair.

Michael Tantillo Ontario County District Attorney

District Attorney Michael Tantillo
Ontario County, New York

The video offers statements from both sides: Ontario County District Attorney Michael Tantillo says the “vast majority” of experts are comfortable with the diagnosis once known as SBS, now called abusive head trauma. Defense attorney William Eastman expresses his skepticism without explaining that he was part of the team that represented Barbara Hershey, 67 years old when she was convicted in 2007 for the presumed shaking death of her 4-month-old grandson. Hershey was released in 2011, after her sentence was reduced in a proceeding that did not address the validity of the diagnosis. Like so many women in her position, Hershey has had the support of her family from the beginning.

Part II of the series, “Shaken-baby triad still rules in New York courts,” devotes both the text and video segments to Hershey’s case—the treatments are different, though, and the commercial before the video is only 15 seconds, so I recommend both reading and watching.

Decision Returns Quashed Conviction to the Headlines

ECHRA European human rights court, meanwhile, has declined to order compensation for accused mother Lorraine Allen, whose 2000 conviction for presumably shaking her son to death was reversed in 2005. Ms. Allen says she was not surprised at the decision, but is bitterly disappointed that she still has no visitation rights with her surviving son, born after the charges were brought and adopted out against her will.

Allen’s case is one of the last in which Dr. Waney Squier testified to the mainstream model of shaken baby syndrome, repeating on the stand what she’d learned from her medical mentors and colleagues: that the boy’s combination of subdural hematoma, retinal hemorrhages, and encephalopathy represented a shaking injury.

Dr. Waney Squier, at the 2009 Evidence-Based Medicine Symposium Denver, CO

Dr. Waney Squier,
at the 2009 Evidence-Based Medicine Symposium,
Denver, CO

Dr. Squier realized the model was wrong over the next couple of years, she has said, based on her experiences with cases like Allen’s and the work of Dr. Jennian Geddes. “By then it was far too late for my family,” notes Allen, although Dr. Squier did help overturn her conviction—after Allen had already served her time in prison and lost both her sons and her marriage to the accusations. At the time of his death in 1998, four-month-old Patrick had no bruises, grip marks, neck injury, or other signs of violence, only the pattern of intracranial bleeding and swelling that at the time was considered proof of abusive shaking.

The current coverage focuses on whether the vacation of Allen’s conviction was an actual exoneration, as explained in this report from The Guardian:Lorraine Allen denied compensation after being wrongfully jailed for killing son.”

The diagnosis in this case was made in the face of this extraordinary history:  On December 4, 1998, 4-month-old Patrick received his third round of immunizations. At 1 am the next morning, Allen called her doctor with a report that the boy was having trouble breathing. Dr. Barber made a house call and found the child a little “snuffly” and with a slightly elevated temperature, but otherwise fine. He left the home at about 1:30. An hour later, Allen called for emergency help with an unresponsive child. Patrick was resuscitated and placed on life support, but he never regained consciousness and died two days later. Prosecutors concluded that Allen had violently shaken her son after the doctor’s visit and before the emergency call.

For a solid account of the case, written last year for The Justice Gap by a consultant to Allen’s defense team, please see “Shaken Baby Syndrome—And the Fight for Justice.

Articulate Voices Speak Out

Back in the States, the Medill Justice Project has put together its best shaken baby video yet, including a rare interview with law professor Deborah Tuerkheimer, who has caused major waves the past few years with her journal articles and New York Times op ed piece.

Series Examines the Role of Social Services

And moving north again, the Weekend Telegram in Nova Scotia has run a thoughtful three-part series featuring a familiar tale:  An infant with previous health issues removed by social workers who believed the little girl had been shaken—in this case, even though doctors deemed the evidence against the mother too murky for criminal charges.

Part 1 “Guilty until proven innocent

Part 2 “Justice at a heavy price

Part 3 “Victims of tunnel vision,” which introduces the case of Audrey Edmunds.

Judge Listens to Parents

A High Court judge in Britain has declined to remove three children from the care of their parents, despite findings of subdural hematoma in each of their offspring. The judge seems to have been swayed by the family’s complex medical history, as explained in the coverage on the web site This Is Cornwall:Parents win battle to keep their children out of care.”

Misdiagnosis Prompts Bill

Finally, a family in the southern U.S. has enlisted the help of their legislator after social services restricted access to their older children because of an abuse report triggered by retinal hemorrhages in their infant’s eyes. A follow-up evaluation found no evidence of abuse and attributed the infant’s death to a bad reaction to medication, but the family was disrupted for 5-1/2 months while the paperwork caught up to them.

As the child’s mother noted, “We were kind of guilty until proven innocent.”

Television station KATC in Layfayette, Louisiana, offers both video and text coverage on their web site, at “Iota family fighting for new legislation after misdiagnosis forces call to child services.”

Business Goes On as Usual

Despite all of these developments, the accusations continue—and the interrogations and the prosecutions. Just in the last couple of days, for example, young men who initially denied any abuse have become confession statistics:

Father Accepts Plea Deal in Shaken Baby Investigation

Police:  Ogden Man Admitted To Shaking Baby in His Care

And a couple has been cast by the police and the press in the worst possible light after they sought medical help for their son, who was found to have symptoms “consistent with” shaken baby syndrome:

Couple arrested after baby found unresponsive

I suppose some or all of these people might be guilty, but myself, I see lots of room for innocence in all three cases.

-Sue Luttner

If you are not familiar with the debate surrounding shaken baby syndrome, please see the home page of this blog site.

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Filed under abusive head trauma, AHT, Falsely accused, Innocence Project, parents accused, SBS, shaken baby syndrome

Good Medicine: Connect at a Conference

Biomechanic John Lloyd, PhD, reviewing medical imaging with a parent at the 2012 EBMSI conference.

Biomechanic John Lloyd, PhD, reviewing tissue properties and the laws of physics with Tonya Sadowsky at the 2012 EBMSI conference.

Two exciting conferences are coming up this summer and fall, one for people who want to understand more about the troubling diagnosis of infant abusive head trauma, and another for professionals eager to witness the evolving debate.

The Evidence Based Medicine and Social Investigtion group (EBMSI), which is hosting the August conference, is a remarkable organization to begin with, a coalition of families who have weathered abuse allegations and are now offering help to the newly accused. With an expanding circle of volunteers and supporters, founders Zabeth and Paul Bayne are holding their third conference this summer, August 2–4 in Surrey, British Columbia.

Zabeth and Bethany Bayne, August 2012

Zabeth and Bethany Bayne, August 2012. Zabeth and her husband were accused of shaking Bethany when she was just a few weeks old. The parents reported one of her older brothers had fallen on her.

The conference is intended both for accused families and for professionals and paraprofessionals who work with child abuse cases. The 2013 faculty includes published experts and front-line practitioners in the arena. The setting is intimate, and the schedule provides time for consultation with the speakers.

Last year I posted summaries of the talks by forensic pathologist Dr. John Plunkett and attorney Zachary Bravos at EBMSI. Other speakers this year include pediatric neuroradiologist Dr. Pat Barnes—who testified for the prosecution in the Louise Woodward case but has since revised his opinion—and pediatric bone expert Dr. Charles Hyman.

For information about the conference, please go to http://www.sbstriad.com/

2015 update: The conference information is no longer on line.

A group of forensic pathologists, meanwhile, is attempting to move the debate forward with a “World Congress on Infant Head Trauma,” November 15–17, at the Center for American and International Law in Plano, Texas.

The conference, sponsored by the publishing arm of the National Association of Medical Examiners, is intended to “find common ground and debate controversial topics in pediatric forensic pathology.”

The conference features a series of presentations and responses by each of two teams, whose specific positions are not articulated in the conference publicity.  One team is headed by forensic pathologist Dr. Greg Schmunk, the other by forensic pathologist Dr. John Plunkett.

Speakers will submit both written and oral arguments, and an editorial board will publish a summary of the dialog in 2014. Dr. Chris Milroy will act as conference director and editor-in-chief of the published proceedings.

The content is limited to head trauma, not the larger question of infant abuse, with a specific focus on shaken baby syndrome. From the web publicity:

During their presentations and submissions to the Editorial Board, contributors are asked to consider and answer (using an appropriate scientific basis) the question “is it possible that shaking an infant results in the classical triad?”

Exciting times in the arena.

2015 update: The World Congress web site is no longer up, and I’ve not heard anything yet about a published proceedings.

-Sue Luttner

If you are not familiar with the professional debate surrounding shaken baby syndrome, please see the home page of this blog.

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Filed under abusive head trauma, AHT, Dr. John Plunkett, EBMSI conference, Falsely accused, SBS, shaken baby syndrome, Zachary Bravos

Forward, Into the Book Stores

audreyCover

Audrey Edmunds’s book was released in late 2012.

Just three years ago, the only books I could find about shaken baby syndrome told the prosecution’s story: Medical texts offered confident advice about  symptoms and  timing [1]. One  guide for practitioners, The Shaken Baby Syndrome: A Multi-Disciplinary Approach, specifically recommended the kind of seamless co-operation among hospitals, social services, and the police that has been winning convictions in these cases for thirty years and counting [2]. And a number of personal books told the stories of families ravaged by the loss of a precious child to presumed shaking [3,4].

Now the other storyline is hitting the shelves: Two women have already published books about their experiences as exonerated baby-shakers, and more works are on the horizon.

It Happened to Audrey

It Happened to Audrey is the memoir of Audrey Edmunds, a wife, mother, and child care provider who spent a decade in prison before her conviction was overturned in 2008 after an appeal by the Wisconsin Innocence Project.

AudreyQuoteWritten with her friend Jill Wellington, a journalist, the book traces Audrey’s harrowing journey, from her horror and feelings of guilt the day a 6-month-old girl fell unconscious in her care, through the unimaginable accusations, trial, and years in prison for an assault that she knew had never happened. The experience not only shattered Audrey’s world but gave everyone around her a new perspective. In this excerpt, for example, a seasoned reporter sees a new side to the crime beat:

Meanwhile, my journalist friend, Jill Wellington, was working at a television station in Michigan the day after the verdict came in. Her hands trembled as she punched in the phone number for the Dane County Courthouse. “Hello, I’m a news reporter in Michigan and I’d like to get the verdict in the Audrey Edmunds case.”

“Well, of course, she’s guilty,” the woman who answered the phone replied tersely.

Jill was stunned at this abrupt, ill-considered comment. One of Jill’s coworkers knew a producer at Dateline, NBC. Jill called him and asked if he would investigate my case. A week later, she called the producer again and was shocked at his reply.

“I talked to some of the newspaper reporters who covered Audrey’s case,” the producer said. “They all say she’s guilty.”

Anyone who has been falsely accused of injuring a child will resonate with this book.  I hope it’s also read by social workers, investigators, and people who assume that an innocent person cannot be convicted in our justice system.

When Truth No Longer Matters

heather'sCroppedMeanwhile in Britain, accused parent Heather Toomey has written a remarkable account of her historic battle with social services, When Truth No Longer Matters.

Through unwavering focus and the support of extended family, Heather managed to keep herself, her husband, and their two young sons together while she and her husband fought accusations of shaking the younger boy. Seven years later, the child was diagnosed with a bleeding disorder that explained the subdural hematoma behind the original shaking diagnosis.

At the time, however, the Toomey family was branded as child abusers, under constant pressure to “tell the truth” so as to “clear up” what had happened to their baby. They abandon their home and move in with relatives, so as to satisfy the supervision requirements. They struggle to stay ahead of the financial burdens and attend unending court-imposed appointments. They tolerate frequent, intrusive visits; evaluations; interrogations; and bureaucratic hurdles, all while trying to maintain the kind of positive attitude the social workers demand.

“The authorities have taken a capable mother and turned her into a paranoid mess,” Heather writes, convincingly.

Finally, she and her husband give in to the pressure and sign a “threshold agreement,” in which they admit to failing their young son in return for having their case closed. She writes:

We still firmly believe that the cause is medical, but we have no doctor prepared to back up our belief . . .  whichever way we look at it, it is less of a leap to admit to failing him than it is to admit to abusing him.

With the parents subdued, their children’s names are removed from the “at risk” register, and the constant interference comes to an end. They are allowed to return to their own home. “The case conference concludes that there were never any concerns raised about us as parents or about the children’s welfare during the entire time of their involvement,” Heather recounts. “Our children have never been at risk from us, only from those who failed to  investigate anything other than suppositions and accusations.”

heatherToomehyTheir son’s bleeding disorder was diagnosed years later, after they’d been badgered into capitulation—but at least they’d kept their family intact.

Like Audrey’s story, Heather’s from-the-heart narrative will validate the experiences of accused parents and caregivers. Again, I hope the book also finds an audience among social workers, investigators, and prosecutors, who need to listen to the child-abuse experts, but not without keeping an open mind to the bigger picture.

You can read more about Heather’s story on her web site, at http://www.searchfortruth.co.uk/index.html

Edges of Truth: The Mary Weaver Story

Exonerated babysitter Mary Weaver has collaborated with ministerial writer Deb Brammer on a book about Mary’s ordeal, Edges of Truth: The Mary Weaver Storyscheduled for release in the fall of 2013. Weaver was one of the first babysitters convicted of shaking an infant in her care, in the early 1990s, and one of the first exonerations.

The tag line for the book is:

“When a baby is brutally murdered, an innocent babysitter is accused and uncertainty forces experts to define the edges of truth.”

Fall 2013 Update: Edges of Truth: The Mary Weaver Story is now available. I’ve posted this blog entry about it.

Vaccine-Induced Encephalitis

And a couple of years ago a physician and a journalist together published a book questioning one aspect of shaken baby syndrome, Shaken Baby Syndrome and Vaccine-Induced Encephalitis: Are Parents Being Falsely Accused? By Harold Buttram, MD, and journalist Christina England (AuthorHouse, 2011).

Spring 2014 update:  Law professor Deborah Tuerkheimer has now published her academic treatment of the subject, Flawed Convictions:  “Shaken Baby Syndrome” and the Inertia of Injustice.

copyright 2013, Sue Luttner

If you are not familiar with the controversy surrounding shaken baby syndrome, please see the home page of this blog.

Footnotes:

[1] Shaking and Other Non-Accidental Head Injuries in Children, by Drs. Robert A. Minns and J. Keith Brown, Mac Keith Press, 2006

[2] The Shaken Baby Syndrome: A Multidisciplinary Approach, edited by Drs. Stephen Lazoritz and Vincent J. Palusci, The Haworth Maltreatment & Trauma Press, 2001

[3] Grandma’s Baby: A True Story of One Family’s Struggle with “Shaken Baby Syndrome” and what they call “Shaken Family Syndrome,” by Karen Wise, R.N., Trafford Publishing, 2006

[4] What Happened to Christopher? by Ann-Janine Morey, Southern Illinois University Press, 1998

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Filed under abusive head trauma, AHT, Falsely accused, Innocence Network, parents accused, SBS, shaken baby syndrome

Old Cases, New Cases, Sad Cases, True Cases

An exasperating series of convictions and exonerations has reminded me both how big a price child-care providers are paying in this arena and how hard it is to pin down the facts about shaken baby syndrome.

Mary Weaver, 41 years old in 1993, when accused of shaking an infant in her care

Mary Weaver, 41 years old in 1993, when accused of shaking an infant in her care

Mary Weaver, Exonerated

If more people had been paying attention in the 1990s, for example, the story of 11-month-old Melissa Mathes would have been a valuable case study in both timing and mechanism.

On a January morning in 1993, care provider Mary Weaver called 911 for help when the infant Melissa fell unconscious after about 45 minutes in her care. Autopsy revealed a healing skull fracture, but doctors concluded the girl had been shaken to death—and based on the common wisdom that the symptoms of a serious pediatric head injury are immediate and obvious, prosecutors targeted the babysitter.

Weaver’s first trial ended with a hung jury, her second in a conviction and a life sentence. Then new witnesses came forward to report that Melissa had been knocked unconscious in a fall at home on the morning of that critical day. Weaver was granted a new trial in 1996, and was acquitted by a jury in 1997.

The case changed the mind of forensic pathologist Dr. Vincent Di Maio, for many years the editor-in-chief of The Journal of Forensic Medicine & Pathology. Called in for his opinion, Di Maio read Melissa’s medical records and realized the common knowledge about timing of infant head injuries was wrong. The girl had been seen by her family doctor three times for the flu in the week before she quit breathing in Weaver’s care.

“That case is very disturbing,” DiMaio told me in 2000, “because everybody agrees that the skull fracture is seven days old, and everybody agrees that the doctor saw this child and thought she looked normal… But we know she already had cortical necrosis [dead brain tissue] and thrombosis [clots inside the vessels]… Whether or not you believe the babysitter killed the kid, you know a serious brain injury went unnoticed by a professional observer.”

The case has not appeared in the medical journals, but Mary Weaver was in the news last month when her name was added to the National Registry of Wrongful Convictions, maintained by the University of Michigan Law School and the Center on Wrongful Convictions at Northwestern University School of Law. The registry offers a summary of Weaver’s case, and her local newspaper covered the registration story. 2014 update: There is now a book about Mary’s case.

Kelly Kline, Not Guilty

Fifteen years after Weaver’s exoneration, Ohio child care provider Kelly Kline found herself in the same spot, fighting shaking allegations even though the child who fell unconscious in her care had a healing skull fracture revealed at autopsy.

Akron Children's Hospital

Akron Children’s Hospital

Even more remarkable in the case of 15-month-old Ella Young, the treating physicians had a plausible explanation for the fracture:  The girl had fallen down the stairs at her mother’s split-level home a week before developing breathing problems at Kline’s house. Dr. Richard Daryl Steiner, however, a pediatrician at Akron Children’s Hospital, concluded that the fracture was irrelevant and Ella had died of shaking injuries inflicted immediately before her meltdown. He and Summit County Medical Examiner Dr. Lisa Kohler both testified for the prosecution at Kline’s trial

Dr. John Plunkett, at the 2012 EBMSI conference

Dr. John Plunkett, at the 2012 EBMSI conference

Forensic pathologist Dr. John Plunkett testified for the defense, arguing that the fall six days earlier could have set off a slow neurological response that reached a critical threshold without a violent trigger.

The good news is that the jury found Kline not guilty—the Wooster Daily Record, which had earlier published the charges without question, including Kline’s name and address, also covered the not guilty verdict this past fall.

The tragedy is that child protection professionals continue to press these cases. Kline says she understands that she was lucky to be found innocent, but she and her family are still struggling to recover from the financial and emotional costs.

badge“I see a police officer, and I know it’s not rational, but my hands shake. I can’t think,” she said in early April, months after the innocent verdict. She’s trying to shed her anger at the officers and social workers who dealt with her over the year and a half she stood accused. “Not one person ever tried to help me or listen to my story,” she said, “They just accused me and accused me.”

Throughout more than one difficult interrogation, Kline never wavered from her original story, although keeping her head wasn’t easy, she recalled. “Lieutenant [Kurt] Garrison told me, ‘All fingers are pointed toward you. The forensic science says you did this. Dr. Daryl Steiner says you did this. There are no other suspects’ . . . He had me so frustrated the way he was turning it around, he almost made me believe I did something wrong.”

Ashley Howe, from the police interrogation tape

Ashley Howes, from the police interrogation tape

Ashley Howes, Compensated

At 13, Ashley Howes was not an experienced babysitter. She was the daughter of a family acquaintance, expecting to act as a “mother’s helper” for the weekend, playing with a pair of sisters, 5 years and 19 months old.

The girls were having a good time, and on Sunday afternoon Ashley agreed to extend her stay. But then, less than an hour after she was left alone with the sisters, Ashley called 911 for help with an unconscious toddler, her charge Freya.

The shaking diagnosis came quickly. Police picked up Ashley at the hospital and took her to the station, where they interrogated her for a total of 19 hours, turning on the video recorders at about 3 am. You can see what the Seattle police considered to be the damning portion of the interview in the 48 Hours coverage of the case.

Ultimately, Judge Mary Roberts excluded the tapes from evidence, noting that detectives had ignored what she considered Ashley’s recorded invocation of her right to remain silent. With the tapes excluded, prosecutor Kathy Van Olst then asked the court to withdraw the charges, with the argument that the tapes were essential to proving the necessary timeline.

The 48 Hours coverage in 2006, after the charges were withdrawn, offered this background information on shaken baby syndrome:

According to most doctors, the only other way Freya could have sustained these kinds of head injuries would have been from a high-speed car accident or a fall from a great height, two things she was not involved in that weekend…

Dr. Brian Johnston, the chief of pediatrics at Harborview Medical Center, says he thinks Freya suffered an inflicted injury.

“In severe or fatal shaken baby cases, the symptoms would be apparent immediately after the shaking. They have difficulty breathing. They lose consciousness,” says Johnston.

Johnston did not treat Freya that night but has studied shaken baby cases. Does he think a 100-pound child could create enough force to kill a 26-pound baby?

“A 100-pound child is the size of many average-sized grown women. Unfortunately, we know that people that size are capable of inflicting these injuries on children,” says Johnston.

After the charges were withdrawn, the police, the district attorney’s office, and Freya’s family all told reporters for 48 Hours that they still believe Ashley is guilty. Her defense attorney Bryan Hershman, however, said, “I don’t want this little girl to live the rest of her life with people saying she got off on a technicality. She didn’t. She’s innocent.”

IMG_4464Ashley Howes was not convicted, but at the age of 13 she endured hours of hostile interrogations by a series of police officers who insisted she had murdered a little girl. She spent nearly a year under house arrest with an ankle monitor, not even allowed onto her own back lawn, and when she finally returned to school, any hopes of a normal adolescence were put to rest by taunts and jeers at the presumed baby-killer.

Ashley’s story was in the Seattle Times in March when the city reached a financial settlement with her parents, who had filed a civil suit in 2011 against the police for their callous and deceptive treatment of their daughter.

What I wish is that the doctors who make these black-and-white pronouncements about causation and timing would speak personally with the people they’re accusing, and not just send the police in to badger out confessions. I think they are missing out on a lot of valuable information. The police claim that Ashley confessed to “shaking” Freya twice, for example.  One of those two incidents was earlier in the day while she was giving the girl a bath, before the parents left the house.  If Ashley shook Freya violently at that time, and the symptoms are as immediate as Dr. Johnston says, would Freya’s mother really have called Ashley’s mother later in the afternoon and asked to keep her longer? If that “confession” isn’t accurate, what about the other one? I just don’t understand their sureness in the face of these uncertainties and conflicting tales.

Toni Blake and Suzanne JohnsonChristmas, 2001

Toni Blake and Suzanne Johnson
Christmas, 2001

Suzanne Johnson, Supported

Grandmother and child care provider Suzanne Johnson was convicted in 1999, during the first wave of shaking accusations. Counting time served waiting for trial, she is now 15 years into a mandatory sentence of 25 years to life.

Johnson’s conviction politicized her young jury consultant, Toni Blake, who was sure her client was innocent. While studying the medical literature for Johnson’s trial, Blake realized how unprepared most defense attorneys are for infant head injury cases, so she now offers a primer on shaken baby syndrome on the web site for her consulting business, Second Chair Services.

After years of work by Blake and others, the California Innocence Project has now taken on Johnson’s case.

Later this month the project is starting an Innocence March to the state’s capitol in Sacramento, where marchers will ask for pardons from Governor Jerry Brown for 12 convicted prisoners. The first leg of the walk, from San Diego to Ocean Beach, is dedicated to Johnson. Blake reports that Innocence Project attorneys have drafted a habeas corpus brief in the case that will be filed in 2013.

Inspired by the walk, supporters of Suzanne Johnson have started a Facebook page under the name Team Sue, at https://www.facebook.com/pages/Team-Sue-California-Innocence-Project-Innocence-March/479414115446391. You can read more about her story on her Innocence March entry.

Marina England, Convicted

A case of witnessed shaking has led to a felony conviction for aggravated battery in Illinois, where a mother told police she arrived to pick up her two daughters and found care provider Marina England screaming at the 3-month-old and shaking her. 

The child seems to have shown no behavioral changes or diagnostic signs like bleeding or swelling, but Ariel Cheung writing in the The Register-Mail reports that two days after the incident, when the infant was brought in for an abuse evaluation, Dr. Channing Petrak, medical director of the University of Illinois Pediatric Resource Center in Peoria, diagnosed “a mild traumatic brain injury, more commonly known as a concussion.”

I’m not sure what criteria Dr. Petrak used to reach her diagnosis, but according to the news report, her testimony was key to the judge’s verdict.

If you are interested in more on witnessed shakings, please see this blog posting from the fall of 2012. If you know of other witnessed shakings, please submit a comment. If you tell me it’s intended as a private communication, not a public comment, I will not post it but respond privately.

copyright 2013, Sue Luttner

If you are not familiar with the medical debate surrounding shaken baby syndrome, please see the home page of this site.

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Filed under abusive head trauma, AHT, California Innocence Project, Falsely accused, SBS, shaken baby syndrome