Tag Archives: falsely accused of child abuse

Ohio Decisions Seed Hope

Two decisions this fall in Ohio offer hope for the wrongfully accused, while underscoring both the ironies and the complexities of misguided accusations of child physical abuse. One of them even opens the door to possible legal accountability for the casual over-diagnosis of abuse.

First, the Supreme Court of Ohio has reversed the 2016 assault conviction of child care provider Chantal Thoss.

In December of 2014, Ms. Thoss called 911 for help with a baby who she said had fallen from a couch and was “not acting right.” Doctors at the hospital found no bruises, fractures, or other signs of assault, but did find retinal hemorrhages and both new and old bleeding inside the boy’s skull, evidence of both a recent and a preexisting brain injury.

Early in the investigation, Dr. Randall Schlievert at Mercy Health offered his opinion that the baby had been shaken by his last caretaker before the call for help. Detective Brian Weaver never questioned the presumed timing, and the case proceeded against Ms. Thoss.

According to the court’s summary, Dr. Schlievert explained on the stand “that once the brain is injured, symptoms manifest immediately,” with this concession:

“Schlievert remarked that it is debated in the field whether an older injury can make a child more fragile or more likely to suffer a serious injury from a mild fall later. He noted that many doctors believe that they may have seen such a case, but there is not a single published article that proves that that happens.”

After reading the trial testimony and listening to the 911 call and taped interviews with the babysitter, the three-judge panel declared that a guilty verdict was “against the manifest weight of the evidence.” Noting that they had listened to the same recordings the jury had, the judges offered a different interpretation:

“From those recordings, it is evident to us, acting in this instance as the thirteenth juror, that appellant wholeheartedly believed that she caused injury to E.A. not by shaking him, but by placing him on the couch while retrieving his diaper and by her instinctual response of picking him up off the floor after he had fallen. We could hear the raw emotion in appellant’s voice [emphasis added] as she reported the child’s condition to the 911 operator, the self-condemnation over the decision to briefly leave him unattended on the couch, the genuine surprise upon being informed by Weaver that E.A. had signs of previous injury, and her struggle to understand how this incident produced the injuries suffered by E.A.”

Ms. Thoss has been released from prison. The state has not yet announced whether it will refile charges against her.

A civil case

Meanwhile, Senior District Judge James G. Carr in western Ohio has allowed a civil case against Dr. Schlievert to move forward. Although far from any resolution, the decision is a rare crack in what is usually a solid wall of immunity for physicians who diagnose child abuse.

mopBucketIn September of 2014, day care worker Beth Gokor called her supervisor to report that a 3-year-old boy she was watching couldn’t walk or stand on his own after slipping and falling on a wet linoleum floor.

At the hospital, the boy told a physician’s assistant that he “slipped and fell,” and a co-worker later confirmed Gokor’s report that the floor was wet from a recent mopping. According to police notes, the child’s mother said he had told her he slipped while running.

childRunningCartoonWhen Dr. Randall Schlievert reviewed the records, however, he concluded that the spiral fracture to the boy’s leg must have been an inflicted injury, not an accident—and he recommended challenging the day care’s license because “[c]hildren do not appear to be currently safe there.” Schlievert offered his opinion that the day care was making “improbable statements” and asserted, as if refuting the caretaker’s report, “[JJ] would not have been able to stand.”

Ms. Gokor was fired immediately, and she was later charged with endangering children.

Her defense team hired pediatric radiologist Gregory Shoukimas, who, according to the court summary, not only concluded that the injury was accidental but also noted that Dr. Schlievert’s report was “riddled with errors.”

When prosecutors received the alternative medical report, the state dropped charges against Ms. Gokor, who then filed a civil suit against Dr. Schlievert. The decision this fall rejected a motion by Dr. Schlievert to block that suit, which will presumably now move forward.

A similar suit

Criminal defense attorney Lorin Zaner

Criminal defense attorney Lorin Zaner

Intriguingly, the same judge who gave the green light to the Gokor suit this year blocked a similar suit in 2017, also against Dr. Schlievert and also pressed by criminal defense attorney Lorin Zaner, a veteran of wrongful abuse cases.

The plaintiff in the earlier decision was Molly Blythe, the mother of twin daughters born prematurely, as many twins are. The second-born twin, referenced as “KB,” endured first manual repositioning and ultimately vacuum extraction, emerging with “significant bruising” on  her scalp. At early visits with the pediatrician, the mother expressed ongoing concerns over KB’s frequent vomiting and difficult sleep patterns.

At the age of two months, with her head growing unusually fast, KB was found to have bilateral subdural hematomas and large extra-axial fluid collections. Doctors performed surgery to relieve the brain pressure. The first eye examination, conducted after the surgery, revealed retinal hemorrhages,.

“In the absence of any other explanation, the doctors diagnosed KB with Shaken Baby Syndrome,” the judge’s opinion recounts, and the county hired Dr. Schlievert to perform a formal child abuse assessment. “After reviewing KB’s medical file,” the judge wrote, “Dr. Schlievert concurred in the initial child abuse diagnosis.”

zaner@NormansParty

Mr. Zaner speaking at Dr. Norman Guthkelch’s 100th birthday party, 2015

Mr. Zaner hired a full complement of experts—a neuroradiologist, a diagnostic radiologist, a pediatric opthalmologist with a specialty in retinas, a pediatrician with extensive child abuse experience, and a biomechanics professor. After receiving their reports, which enumerated other possible causes for the findings, the state dropped criminal charges. Rather than engage in further court proceedings, the mother consented to a family court order giving custody of the girls to their maternal grandmother. Then she filed suit against Dr. Schlievert and the county.

In his opinion blocking that suit, Judge Carr emphasized that Dr. Schlievert’s conclusions matched those of the treating physicians:

“The fact that Dr. Schlievert reached nearly identical conclusions supports a determination that his conduct did not ‘shock the conscience’ but rather was a sound medical conclusion based on his review of KB’s medical file.”

In its insistence that Dr. Schlievert was innocent of intentional misdirection, the opinion seems to sanction his apparent decision to finalize his abuse assessment in the case of a 2-month-old preemie without examining the birth records or establishing a clear timeline for the reported findings:

“The complaint does not allege that at the time he provided his February consultative report to CSB [Children’s Services Board], Dr. Schlievert knew about the traumatic birth or that the surgeries had preceded the first, and thus baseline, retinal examination.”

I can understand why the unanimity of opinion among child abuse experts gives the impression that shaking theory is well established—that conclusion, alas, is one of the reasons this fight is so difficult. The problem is that shaking theory was adopted before it was proven scientifically, and the research since that point has been premised on the assumption that convictions and plea bargains prove abuse.

My best hope is that Judge Carr might notice a pattern in the child abuse suits that come through his court. A few popular but unproven tenets of child abuse medicine—that the triad proves shaking, for example, and the symptoms are always immediate, or that spiral fractures mean abuse—continue to derail accurate diagnosis and mar the good work that child abuse physicians otherwise do.

copyright 2018, Sue Luttner

If you are not familiar with the debate surrounding shaken baby syndrome, please see the home page of this blog site.

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Filed under AHT, Falsely accused, SBS, shaken baby, Uncategorized

Steps Forward, Steps Backward, Part II

The second half of a posting started on March 7

Re-creation of the reported fall

In another small step forward, a father in Michigan has been found not guilty of murder or abuse in the death of his 11-week-old son, after spending 16 months in jail waiting for trial.

Mark Hontz had reported falling down the basement stairs with the boy in his arms, landing on the infant when they reached the floor. Doctors at the University of Michigan, however, rejected that explanation for the child’s injuries. At the preliminary hearing, forensic pathologist Dr. Jeffrey Jentzen pointed to anterior rib fractures and neck damage, which he said were “more consistent” with the compression and whiplash that occur during squeezing and shaking than with a fall down stairs.

Dr. Jentzen’s testimony reflected an opinion I’ve heard before about pediatric stairway falls:

“Well actually, going down stairs is not a single fall down, for example, ten feet. It is ten individual falls down a single foot, so there’s not the long distance fall that you would expect.”

In the journal Pediatrics in 1988, Drs. Mark Joffe and Stephen Ludwig at the University of Pennsylvania proposed that model in their paper “Stairway Injuries in Children,” illustrating their point with the figure to the right. That paper had concluded that “nonaccidental injury should be suspected” when children receive serious injuries in an alleged stairway fall.

The photos at the top of this page show the stairs to Mark Hontz’s basement, with the figure at the starting and landing spots he reported. A biomechanical engineer brought in by the defense pointed out that an adult falling forward down stairs does not fall one step at a time, as the feet are no longer under the center of mass. Instead, the body falls forward, propelled by the force of gravity, until the motion “is arrested by contact with the ground or steps.” The engineer calculated that the infant experienced a vertical fall of 9 feet, landing with an approximate speed of 16 miles per hour.

Investigators conducted a series of interviews with Mark Hontz, finally confronting him with the medical opinion that his son did not die from a fall down the stairs. “Hontz offered no other explanation,” the police report says, which is another way of saying that, even under intense pressure during repeated interrogations, the father never changed his story.

Illustrating the value of a thorough defense, attorney Sharon Clark Woodside also called in a forensic pathologist, a child abuse pediatrician, and a pediatric radiologist to rebut the prosecution theory.

Witnessed Shakings

Two witnessed shakings in separate hemispheres this winter seem to have produced no injuries, nor any questioning of shaking theory.

Dismayed diners at an Australian cafe called authorities about a man shouting and shaking his 5-month-old daughter, according to a news story by reporter Allison Harding. After paramedics checked the child and cleared the father to take her home, Harding wrote, other patrons attempted unsuccessfully to block his car. The father later pled guilty to unlawful assault and has sought treatment for “long-term mental health issues.” His wife reportedly stood by him in court, calling him a responsible and loving father.

cottonwoodaz

Cottonwood, Arizona

Concerned bystanders in Cottonwood, Arizona, called police and recorded video of a 19-year-old mother shaking and slapping her 10-month-old daughter at a street corner, according to coverage in the Verde Independent. Responding officers arrested the mother, a transient already known to local police and described as “combative.” Authorities later discovered that the child was missing from foster care in another state, kidnapped by her parents during a family visit. The Independent’s coverage quoted Cottonwood Police Sergeant Tod Moore, who said, “I have seen too often in shaken baby cases where permanent brain damage or death occurs. We appear to be very fortunate this time.” I note that Sgt. Moore has probably seen serious injury in cases where the doctors diagnosed shaking. In the one witnessed case he’s probably handled, doctors at the local hospital found no injuries.

More Fathers in the News

Convictions of and accusations against fathers continue to pass through the headlines.

One case in Pennsylvania has it all: no external signs of assault, the presumption of immediate symptoms, and a retreat from the term “shaken baby syndrome”—but with a computer animation shown at trial illustrating the presumed effects of a violent shaking. From an article before the verdict by reporter Laurie Mason Schroeder of The Morning Call:

Prosecution expert Dr. Debra D. Esernio-Jenssen, medical director of the Child Advocacy Center at Lehigh Valley Hospital, testified that Quinn suffered from symptoms of abusive head trauma, formerly called “shaken baby syndrome.”

Using a computerized animation, Esernio-Jenssen demonstrated how, she said, a baby’s brain would hemorrhage from being snapped back and forth in the hands of an angry adult.

On the subject of timing, Leigh Valley Live reporter Sarah Cassi wrote in an article reporting the conviction:

[Dr. Esernio-Jenssen] testified the baby would have shown immediate symptoms following the “severe, lethal episode of head trauma” she suffered, meaning the injuries occurred while [the father] was alone with the child.

Depressingly, the father’s defense attorney seems to have focused on blaming the child’s mother, arguing only that the injury had been inflicted before the girl was left in his client’s care.

A father in Tennessee has been sentenced to 15 years for aggravated child abuse, convicted after a 4-day trial, according to coverage in the Johnson City Press. The child’s mother still insists her husband is innocent—in a moving clip from the trial posted by WCYB, she said, regarding her son, “We wanted a real answer because we knew he wasn’t abused.”

The story of a young father accused in Wisconsin, meanwhile, received mixed coverage in a single treatment, with a headline about possible doubts but six opening paragraphs focused on the prosecution theory of shaken baby syndrome—the unfolding article then cites the Audrey Edmunds case and reveals that the defense attorney is fighting hard against the diagnosis.

Foster Mom Charged

And in Florida, investigators have reached the improbable conclusion that a 43-year-old mother and foster parent—active in the local child protection community—became enraged enough to batter a 17-month-old to death in the 7-minute gap between the time a social worker left her home and the time she dialed 911 for help with an unconscious toddler. Coverage in the Tampa Bay Times describes a boy with a complex medical history, including developmental delays and physical signs of early neglect. The child used a feeding tube, and he had been discharged from the hospital just a few hours before his collapse, after three days of treatment following a choking incident. Faith in the diagnosis of abusive head trauma, with a guarantee of immediate symptoms, apparently overrides the logical assessment of established medical facts.

Sam Stone

Sam Stone

This story reminds me of Quentin Stone in California, a father acquitted in 2014 by jurors in Yolo County who accepted that the child’s fatal collapse had resulted from an evolving head injury suffered in an accidental fall. Stone had taken his son to the hospital several months before his medical crisis, just to make sure he was OK, he said, after the boy had rolled off a bed. Doctors found no injuries and released him, but over the following weeks, the Stones had sought medical advice repeatedly for their son’s ongoing vomiting and apparent “breath holding.” Despite that well documented history, the prosecution charged Stone with murder after the boy’s fatal collapse, based on medical opinion that the brain findings proved abuse and the symptoms would have been immediate.

Also in Yolo County,  a public invitation this winter to the annual Rotary Club of Davis fund-raising dinner noted that a team of Rotarians had taken a trip three years ago to Kenya, East Africa, “to educate physicians, medical students and nurses on how to identify abusive head trauma in children.” The article did not say where the Rotarians got their own medical training, but it reported that the team “trained nearly 1,200 professionals throughout Kenya.” According to the shaken baby page on the web site for Rotary District 5160 (northern California), the Davis chapter also provides shaken baby simulator dolls to schools and hospitals.

Fractures in the News

Finally, a television station in Indiana ran a provocative segment on a family trying to regain custody of their two sons, removed because of fractures discovered in their first-born when he was four months old. “I understand them getting involved at that point,” says mother Ally Allen on camera, “The frustration came in that they never tried to find an answer.”

Knowing they had not abused their son, Ally says, she and the child’s father started looking for another doctor who could give them an accurate diagnosis. They found Dr. David Ayoub, a pediatric radiologist in Illinois who determined that the infant suffered from rickets, a lack of mineralization in the bones that predisposes to fractures. Once considered a disease of the past, rickets remains “a significant cause of nutritional disease for infants,” according to the American Academy of Pediatrics.

The family’s second child was removed from them at birth because of the pending charges. While they wait for their case to work its way through dependency court, Ally and her partner can see their sons only for a few hours at a time during scheduled visitations.

If you are not familiar with the debate about shaken baby syndrome/abusive head trauma, please see the home page of this site.

copyright 2017 Sue Luttner

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Shaken Baby Debate: Steps Forward, Steps Backward

jasonschneider

Jason & his son

Part I of II

Amid a winter of murky news coverage and disappointing developments, an encouraging story comes out of Colorado, where the state dropped charges in January against father Jason Schneider after a mistrial due to a hung jury in December. Schneider, an EMT and former volunteer firefighter, has enjoyed the support of his family and community since the accusations last winter.

“There’s been so much rebuilding, and lots of celebration,” Jason reported, although his family is still reeling from a year of lurid press coverage, hardly balanced out by a couple of brief articles after the fact. “My wife and I know we are blessed,” he said, “but we are disillusioned with the justice system and the media,” and they worry about other accused families with fewer resources.

Jason had called 911 after his son seemed to choke on a bottle and quit breathing and Jason’s own efforts failed to revive him.

The state’s motion to drop the case—which was based on the triad with no other findings—referenced three letters written to the prosecutor after the trial from jurors, two urging the state to drop the charges. The jury had deadlocked 10-2, with the majority advocating for acquittal. In light of the juror input, the motion declared:

“…undersigned counsel simply does not believe there is a realistic likelihood of a jury composed of 12 different members of the community reaching a unanimous decision finding the defendant guilty.”

The Schneider family

The Schneider family

The judge placed one of the letters in the case file, from a panelist who wrote that many jurors thought the trial was a “poor prosecutorial decision” and the case should be dismissed. He attributed the hung jury to two jurors who approached deliberations “with a presumption of guilt instead of a presumption of innocence.”

The letter-writer, who said he had no preconceptions going into the trial, criticized some of the prosecution’s tactics, including the marginalizing of defense witnesses. He observed that the defense experts had years of experience and knew the research in their specialties, in contrast to the local experts called by the state:

“The inexperienced doctors at Children’s Hospital… believe the triad is gospel as far as Shaken Baby Syndrome/NAI [non-accidental trauma] is concerned. That is what they were taught… The specialists that the defense brought in are far from the only ones that share an alternate view. It was disgusting to hear you refer to them as ‘fringe.'”

Defense attorney Kathryn Stimson had brought in a pediatric ophthalmologist who specializes in retinas, a pediatric neurologist, a neuropathologist, a radiologist, and a biomechanical engineer. She said her team was devastated that the jury didn’t acquit after such a strong defense. “These cases are incredibly difficult,” she reflected. “Even with amazing expert and character witnesses, they are still so very hard.”

evaserenden

Eva Amurri Marino

Indeed, these cases are hard, even without devastating accusations of abuse, a point made by actress and blogger Eva Amurri Martino, daughter of Susan Sarandon and mother of two. Eva revealed in a January posting on her blog Happily Eva After that two months earlier, when her son Major was only a month old, the night nurse had fallen asleep while holding the baby, who had slipped off her lap and onto the hardwood floor.

At the hospital, doctors found a depressed skull fracture and “localized” brain bleeding. Eva and her husband hovered over their precious baby for “two harrowing days” of treatment and tests. “To say these were the most traumatic and anxious two days of my life is an understatement,” she wrote. But their son was then released with a glowing prognosis, and, indeed, he seems to be fine.

She didn’t write about the incident when it happened, Eva explained, because she wanted to wait until they knew Major was OK, and also:

“The second reason I chose not to share was fear of judgement… I know that this news might reach many, and of those many there will always be the people who say that this accident was my fault. That if it had been me in there holding him instead of a Night Nurse, that this never would have happened. That I deserve this for allowing my child to be in the care of somebody other than me. Well, let me tell you–the guilt I bore in the days and weeks after this accident was more intense and more damaging than anything I would wish upon my worst enemy. I had all those same thoughts and more. I wept in the hospital, telling anyone who would listen that it should have been me. That I was to blame. The truth is, even this woman who came so highly recommended, with a perfectly clean track record, could make a very human mistake. It “could happen to anyone”, and as they told me repeatedly in the hospital, it DOES happen to anyone. More often than you’d like to hear. Obviously, the (extremely upset and remorseful) nurse is no longer working for our family, though we forgive her. And even though I finally made peace with the fact that this freak accident could not have been avoided by me, it has continued to effect me to my core and in all aspects of my daily life.”

happilyevafamily

Major with his family

What dazzles me about this case is that the doctors seem to have accepted that a fall from a caretaker’s lap can produce a depressed skull fracture and, I’m extrapolating, subdural hematoma. In 2006 in San Mateo County, I watched a nanny convicted of child abuse based on those symptoms, also with no underlying brain damage. I have to wonder what made the difference—nothing in the posting implies there was ever any question of abuse.

Disappointment at Retrial

A jury in Maryland, meanwhile, has found child care provider Gail Dobson guilty in a second trial, nearly three years after her first conviction was reversed on a finding of ineffective assistance of counsel. Her attorney in 2010 had failed to call any medical experts to dispute the state’s theory, a strategy a 2014 appeals court labelled “deficient” after hearing testimony from two critics of shaking theory. News coverage of the second trial implies that the judge excluded defense expert testimony based on pretrial hearings, so jurors seem to have heard again from only one side in the debate.

Leo Ackley's Facebook profile shot not long before the accusations

Leo and Baylee

The Dobson conviction echoes the outcome this past fall in Michigan, where Leo Ackley was also found guilty at a second trial, after his first conviction was vacated on appeal in 2013. Both the appeal court and the second jury heard from defense experts brought in by the Michigan Innocence Clinic. Leo’s family insists he is innocent and says they are pushing for another appeal. I reached out to Leo, who wrote a long reply, including these thoughts:

“It’s really the hardest time of my life… I don’t know where to begin after being convicted for a second time, and knowing how long and hard it was to make it back the first time. Just preparing for another long appeal process and praying for a miracle.”

I am still hoping for a better outcome in the upcoming retrial of care provider René Bailey, whose conviction in a toddler’s death was vacated in 2014.  Jury selection begins September 5.

I have another thousand words queued up about this winter’s developments, but I think this first half is plenty for one blog posting. More soon.    -Sue

For Part II of this posting:  https://onsbs.com/2017/03/10/steps-forward-steps-backward-part-ii/

If you are not familiar with the debate about shaken baby syndrome, please see the home page of this site.

copyright 2017 Sue Luttner

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Filed under abusive head trauma, AHT, parents accused

Protecting Innocent Families: A Petition

zabethwCaptionA coalition of accused families and the professionals who defend them is asking for an objective scientific evaluation of today’s medical guidelines for diagnosing child abuse, specifically but not exclusively shaken baby syndrome.

“Our child-protection system is in crisis, right now,” says Jennie Aspelin, whose husband Kristian stood accused for two years of shaking their baby to death. “If anything good can come out of our nightmare, it will be through our advocating for change.”

In November of 2010, Kristian Aspelin told emergency responders he had slipped in the kitchen while carrying 3-month-old Johan. But the child abuse expert at San Francisco General Hospital told police that children do not receive serious injuries from short falls and, further, that John’s brain injury proved he had been shaken to death.

The county charged Kristian with murder. For two years, while Kristian and his wife had lost their baby, and their 3-year-old needed stability, Kristian was forced to live apart from his family while fighting the charges. In time, experts hired by the defense found compounding factors in the medical records and conducted biomechanical tests that demonstrated the fall Kristian described could cause serious injury. The county dropped the charges, leaving the Aspelins deeply in debt but reunited.

So now Jennie Aspelin is helping to spread the word about the Protecting Innocent Families petition, a project that grew out of the 2013 conference for families falsely accused of child physical abuse sponsored by the Evidence Based Medicine and Social Investigation group.

The petition has just gone live, on March 4. Organizers say they hope to gather signatures from 1,000 people who believe they have seen dogmatic thinking about child abuse result in accusations against innocent parents and caretakers. Dr. Charles Hyman and film maker Susan Goldsmith

“We’ve been fighting these cases one at a time for 30 years,” says retired pediatrician Dr. Charles Hyman, a petition proponent who once headed the child protection team at Loma Linda University Children’s Hospital. “I’m happy to see somebody trying to address the root of the problem.”

Dr. Hyman explains that the early child-abuse physicians, in their sincere efforts to protect children from possible violence, established a number of guidelines that entered the courtroom without being tested scientifically. Sometimes, he says, a hasty diagnosis of abuse derails what should be a thorough search for a medical condition that might produce or predispose to the same findings. He has seen physicians diagnose abuse based the presence of multiple fractures, for example, without first testing the child’s vitamin D levels.

The diagnosis of shaken baby syndrome is a particular problem, the petition argues. Doctors have been taught for decades that a certain pattern of bleeding and swelling inside the infant skull proves the child was violently shaken. But now improved technology and accumulated experience have demonstrated that the same findings can also result from any of a long and growing list of legitimate medical conditions, so far including stroke, sickle cell disease, anemia, vitamin deficiencies, metabolic disorders, certain kinds of infection, and accidental injury. (For case examples, please see the Cases page on the Protecting Innocent Families web site).

The petition, which will be submitted to the U.S. Congress and to equivalent bodies in other countries, asks for an objective scientific review of the child abuse literature, to establish which opinions are based on statistically significant research and which opinions have become common knowledge without scientific review.

The petitioners suggest that the National Academies of Sciences take on the job, as a follow-up to their important and influential 2009 review of forensics in the courtroom. This petition comes from the affected families at the same time that forensics professionals are raising objections about other aspects of forensic science.

For more information, please see the Protecting Innocent Families web site, https://protectinginnocentfamilies.wordpress.com/, and the Protecting Innocent Families petition, http://bit.ly/InnocentFamilyPetition.

Even Dr. A. Norman Guthkelch, the pioneering pediatric neurosurgeon who first proposed infant shaking as a trigger for brain bleeding, has said he is horrified at the dogmatic thinking that now prevails. For an interview with Dr. Guthkelch by Joe Shapiro of National Public Radio, see “Rethinking Shaken Baby Syndrome.” For his academic statement on the subject, see “Problems of Infant Retino-Dural Hemorrhage With Minimal External Injury.”

Law professor Deborah Tuerkheimer at Northwestern University has published her criticism of shaken baby syndrome in a number of academic articles as well as an op ed piece in The New York Times,Anatomy  of a Misdiagnosis,” and recently a text book, Flawed Convictions:  “Shaken Baby Syndrome” and the Inertia of Injustice.

For the trailer to a provocative documentary about the debate over shaken baby syndrome, please see the web site for The Syndrome.

Both print and broadcast media have been raising questions about SBS diagnoses for years now, including the Wisconsin State Journal, The Washington Post, the ABA JournalThe New York Times Magazine, the Canadian Broadcasting Company, the LA Weekly, The Atlantic, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, Seattle Met, FRONTLINEDiscover,  The Chicago Tribune, and the Los Angeles Times.

The petition is on line at http://bit.ly/InnocentFamilyPetition

photos copyright 2015 Sue Luttner

If you are not familiar with the debate surrounding shaken baby syndrome, please see the home page of this web site.

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Filed under parents accused, SBS, shaken baby syndrome